Smart Shop in a One-Car Garage
Smart Shop in a One-Car Garage
کارگاه نجاری کوچک
Smart Shop in a One-Car Garage
Tales of bad shops are a woodworker’s war stories. After living in five houses in seven years, I have plenty of them to tell: ladders under closeted trapdoors that descended into windowless basements, ceilings that were only an inch taller than I am when I stand barefoot, abandoned radiators, wasp nests, snow, water—good Lord, the water—and a hole in the middle of one shop floor (about 2 ft. in diameter and 2 ft. deep) just behind the infeed side of my tablesaw. Oh, yes, I could tell you some stories. But that’s not my point. My point is that when I moved into a rented house with a one-car garage—9 ft. wide and 18 ft. long—most of my coworkers wondered how I would fit a shop into such a tight space. But after the shops I’ve endured, I felt like I’d finally arrived.
دانلود pdf wooden working
دستگاه نجاری پنجکاره کارگاه فن و هنر ایران زمین
I spent a lot of time planning to condense workspaces and to make sure that machines work efficiently with one another, and I found quick and simple solutions for storage. I think I’ve turned the 160-sq.-ft. garage into a smoothly running shop; it’s just the kind of place where I want to spend a Saturday or unwind after a day at the office. What’s more, when I move, the shop can go with me; everything simply lifts off the walls or rolls out the doors.
A garage transformed
A few months ago, the garage my shop was to be housed in had bare stud walls and one electrical outlet, stored a motorcycle, and was littered with enough garden tools to dig a new sea. Luckily, my roommate, who owns the house, was amenable to revamping the space, provided that I pitch in with some of the work. He wanted insulated walls, electricity, and wide barn doors on the front—or at least as wide as possible on a 9-ft. run of wall. Renovating the garage would be a hefty task, and I had to do it fast. I had promised my future in-laws a dining set, and if they had to wait much longer, I feared they would take their daughter back.
تخته راش خارجی در حال رنده کاری در کارگاه فن و هنر ایران زمین
While I desperately needed a good workspace, I had to remember that I only rent the house. I didn’t want my shelving and workstations to be built in. I wanted to be able to lift them off the walls and move them out when I find and buy Connecticut’s affordable house. And I didn’t want to sink a fortune into cabinets—it’s a workshop, after all, and what comes out of the shop is far more important than what goes in. I needed a shop that was well thought out and engineered for a smooth workflow, but not one that was overbuilt. I forgot about all of the garbage that littered the little garage, and started planning on a clean sheet of paper.
Mapping out the territory
Fitting the major machines—tablesaw, jointer, planer, bandsaw, router table, drill press,and chopsaw—into a room designed to hold a car (a tiny 1920s Model A, at that) is about as difficult as it sounds. I started on graph paper with paper cutouts of all of my tools. Everything had to be drawn to scale because half a foot in such a tight spot could make or break the shop. As in most shops, large stationary tools are key, but they also demand the most space, so the tablesaw seemed a good place to start.
As soon as I put pencil to paper, I saw that I was going to have to forgo my wide 52-in. Biesemeyer fence—there simply wasn’t room. I downgraded to a shorter fence by changing out the rails, which at this point only meant lopping off the end of my tablesaw cutout with scissors. I soon saw that large tools had to be mobile; if I left open floor space, any tool could be pulled out easily and put to use. There still were a few wrinkles—like where my router table would go and how I could consolidate my grinder, chopsaw, and drill press into one smooth-running workstation—but after a little thinking and shopping around, I solved those problems, too.
I also kept an eye on the horizontal arrangement of tools and workstations, making sure that the outfeed from certain tools—like my tablesaw and jointer—wouldn’t be hindered by workbenches or tabletops. After a few more hours of moving around the cutouts and positioning the major machines, I started thinking about storage space and drawing quick sketches of the outfeed situation. In the end, I came up with an arrangement that housed the major tools in just about 80 sq. ft—about half the square footage of the entire space. It was time to run electricity and build the walls.
After cleaning the garage of all its old tools and odds and ends, my roommate and I hired an electrician pal to wire the space. We positioned all of the outlets 44 in. up from the floor—just above bench height—and ran them every 4 ft. We also dropped in four 220-volt outlets conveniently located to reach the beefier machines.
We insulated the walls and hung T-111 siding, which is stronger than drywall and does a better job of holding tool cabinets. The light color of the siding opened up the space, and the rough wood surfaces gave the shop a warm, inviting feel. We then built and hung the barn doors, which took only a weekend to accomplish.
The existing wood floor in the garage would have been nice on the feet, but it was too old and uneven to allow my heavy mobile tools to move easily. We laid down plywood flooring over the existing wood floor and covered it with a few coats of water-based polyurethane.
I have to admit I was shocked that everything worked just as it had on paper. Now I was ready to roll in the machines.
|A well-thought-out corner of the shop. The chopsaw station not only provides good outfeed support for the saw, but it also stores the grinder and the drill press and houses two banks of drawers.|
|Drawers are like clamps—you can never have enough. Metal drawers slide in sawkerfs in the carcase. Hardware and fasteners are stored in watchmaker’s cases. Drawers for cutting tools are padded.|
|A portable workstation. The drill press and grinder are both stored below the chopsaw but are easily removed and clamped to the work surface.|
|Step one: Set the boxes in place. The main carcase is centered on the base and screwed into place.||Step two: Keep the carcases flush and secure. Clamps hold the drawer box in place while it is screwed to both the base and the center carcase.|
|Step three: Exploit every inch. Storage boxes are set behind the drawer boxes and screwed in place.||Step four: Use a thick top. The 1-in.-thick MDFis coated with a few washcoats of shellac and will stand up to heavy work.|
Large tools rest on mobile bases
My tablesaw sits approximately 4 ft. inside the barn doors, leaving enough space on the left side of the saw for my jointer to stand against the opposite wall. And because I put the jointer on a mobile base, I can move it around if I need to joint especially long boards. My small lunchbox planer, which always has worked wonderfully for me, was relegated to the cubbyhole below the right-hand side of my tablesaw. It saves floor space, but because the planer is light and kept on a shopmade mobile base, its usefulness is not limited.
One big hiccup always had been my router table. It made sense to save space by housing the router table in the tablesaw, but most models mount on the right side of the saw—a setup I’d never been happy with. And with the right side of the saw against the wall, where it clearly had to go, I couldn’t stand in front of the fence when routing—doing otherwise always had seemed unsafe. Still, a stand-alone router table was going to take up more room than I had to spare. Browsing through catalogs and the Internet, I found what is the only left-mounted router table that I know of; it’s made by Bench Dog (800-786-8902; www.benchdog.com). Although my choice meant losing 3 in. between the tablesaw and the jointer, I still had plenty of working space. Plus, I was able to get rid of my free-standing router table altogether.
The left-mounted router table works great now, but because my tablesaw table is larger than average—even for a cabinet saw—I had to redrill a few holes in the top of the tablesaw and install spacer blocks to make the router table fit. But the afternoon’s work has proven well worth it. Not only does the table save space, but it also works better than any free-standing router table I’ve ever had. I dropped in a router lift to make it even more user friendly. Now I can change router bits topside with a quick-action wrench, saving both time and hassle.
As planned, the bandsaw rolled into the front corner of my shop, just behind the tablesaw. It is close enough to the doors that I am able to roll it out and use the open doorway as outfeed space as needed. But this is only in a pinch. For most of my woodworking—chairs, small tables and chests of drawers—the bandsaw has plenty of room just where it is.
This arrangement took care of the major stationary tools, and I still had two long walls for the chopsaw station and the workbench. I ended up designing and building a modular chopsaw station that houses not only my chopsaw but also my drill press and grinder. It holds a bank of ready-made drawers and leaves a few cubbyholes in back to store routers and such.
Using the tablesaw’s outfeed table as storage for power tools gives me plenty of open floor space, while exposed rafters work well as lumber racks. Once the major machines were in place, the rest of the shop almost designed itself.
|Buy a mobile base. Storing the bandsaw and jointer on mobile bases allows Teague to pull them out into the open when he has to handle especially long stock.|
|Or make one yourself. Teague’s planer base is nothing more than an MDF box with locking casters screwed to the bottom, and it includes shelves as well.|
Condensed work areas
One key to working in a small shop is to condense your workspaces for both economy and ease. I wound up building units out of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) to handle tablesaw outfeed, as well as my chopsaw, grinder, and drill press.
While I would have loved a nice, long tablesaw outfeed table that could handle large sheet goods, there was hardly room. When working with plywood or MDF, I cut the sheets to rough size with a circular saw in my driveway, then trim them at the tablesaw. Ninety-nine percent of the time, the 2-ft.-wide outfeed table provides all of the support I need for the tablesaw. And if I’m cutting large sheet goods, the workbench is positioned to serve as outfeed support. But I had to get more out of the outfeed table than just outfeed support—I needed a place to store handheld power tools and to serve as another work surface for assembly and other tasks.
The outfeed table is a heavy setup, but I needed the heft to make it sturdy. I assembled the table with knockdown fasteners so that the whole workstation could be disassembled for easy transport when I move. I installed a 1-in.-thick MDF top and covered it with a few coats of shellac—not only does the shellac provide a moisture barrier, but it also makes the MDF less prone to scratches. Four 4-in. lag bolts serve as levelers, making it easy to bring the outfeed table flush to the tablesaw.
It would have been nice to have a sliding compound-miter saw, a floor-standing drill press, and a permanent grinding station that was always ready to go, but working in a small shop meant I had to accept some sacrifices. And because I was working on a budget, I couldn’t upgrade all of my tools—not to mention that my tools had always worked well for me.
After a bit of head scratching, I devised a way to combine my chopsaw, drill press, and grinder into one workstation that takes up only a small footprint and works smoothly. I didn’t work out all of the dimensions ahead of time; I just built it box by box, sized to fit each tool. Almost accidentally, it worked out better than I’d hoped. Because it’s built as a modular unit, the workstation is extremely flexible. Should I replace any of my current tools, I simply can change out one of the units and replace it with a new and correctly proportioned carcase.
|One table, many uses. The outfeed table not only provides support for the tablesaw, but it also stores power tools and other materials. The shop vacuum can be used fordust collection at the tablesaw. The 1-in.-thick MDF top also serves as a sturdy work surface for assembly. Lag bolts in the base make it easy to level the table.|
|Condense workspaces. A router table that mounts on the left side of the tablesaw saves valuable floor space and still leaves plenty of room for moving around.|
The bank of drawers on my chopsaw station provides more than 30 sq. ft. of storage space. I ordered premade metal drawers (around $4 apiece) from Lee Valley (800-267-8735; www.leevalley.com). Installation was simple. All I had to do was build a box and run sawkerfs every 1-1/4 in.; the 1-in. and 2-in.-deep drawers slide into place and can be rearranged however I like. The drawer-box carcase became the basis around which I built my chopsaw stand.
One of the best parts of working for this magazine is that I get to visit the best workshops in the world, and the good ideas I see are abundant. While visiting Tony O’Malley, a woodworker in Emmaus, Pa., I was struck by the efficiency and cleverness of his storage space. He had built storage units all around the top of his shop wall similar to the MDF units I had installed above my bandsaw, jointer, and chopsaw station.
I built them using an ultralight MDF rather than the weightier MDF of my outfeed table—the weight helps in that situation, but it isn’t necessary on the wall. The light stuff is also much more pleasant to use. As O’Malley did on his shelves, I ran dadoes in the top and bottom to make the storage units adjustable and adaptable: By rearranging the 1/4-in.-thick dividers, I can design separate cubbyholes for each tool.
Above both the chopsaw station and jointer, I screwed simple plywood shelves to the wall. The shelves hold screws, router bits, and drill bits and help keep everything organized. Staying organized is key to working in any shop—I hate floundering around a sloppy space trying to locate a bit or a tool. And for space reasons, organization is even more important in a small shop. I used watchmaker’s cases from Lee Valley to hold screws and other hardware. With just a glance, I can find what I’m looking for.
|A place for everything. Space above the rafters is used for storing—and even drying—lumber.|
Where MDF falls short
I was bent on using quick methods and economical materials, but when it came to my workbench, it was hard to accept compromise. I recently inherited an old workbench top from a friend, who had inherited it from another friend, who’d been given the bench by a boatbuilding pal many years ago. It is exactly the kind of workbench that makes you want to be a woodworker—an end vise, a front vise, a tail vise, and a heavy maple top scarred with history. I built a maple base for it and installed the same drawer boxes I’d used on an earlier bench. I don’t think I could sleep at night if I stored my favorite chisels and planes in an MDF box above the bench. Instead, I made a simple cherry wall unit with two box doors. I picked my favorite and most necessary hand tools and outfitted the box with custom tool holders. It was quick work, but the unit serves all of my needs.
Though the garage required a fair amount of renovation, the shop came together quickly and works better than I ever would have imagined. A good workshop should be simple and sensible but designed with an eye toward efficiency. A sensible shop makes you work better and smarter. The best part is that when I move, the shop can be disassembled to move with me.
|Making it work. A well planned space—even if it’s small—allows plenty of room for building furniture. Here, Teague works on a set of cherry dining chairs.|
Originally published in Fine Woodworking magazine (FWW #160).
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc. Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry. Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999, and there were about 1.5 million positions in 2006. Carpenters are usually the first tradesmen on a job and the last to leave. Carpenters normally framed post-and-beam buildings until the end of the 19th century; now this old fashioned carpentry is called timber framing. Carpenters learn this trade by being employed through an apprenticeship training—normally 4 years—and qualify by successfully completing that country’s department of labour competency test in places such as the UK, USA and South Africa. It is also common that the skill can be learnt by gaining work experience other than a formal training program, which may be the case in many places.
The word “carpenter” is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier (later, charpentier) which is derived from the Latin carpentrius [artifex], “(maker) of a carriage. The Middle English and Scots word (in the sense of “builder”) was wright (from the Old English wryhta, cognate with work), which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright.
Use of terms in the United Kingdom
In the UK, carpentry is more correctly used to describe the skill involved in first fixing of timber items, such as construction of roofs, floors and timber framed buildings, i.e., those areas of construction that are normally hidden in a finished building. An easy way to envisage this is that first fix work is all that is done before plastering takes place. Second fix is done after plastering takes place. Second fix work, the construction of items such as skirting boards, architraves, and doors also comes under carpentry. Carpentry is also used to construct the formwork into which concrete is poured during the building of structures such as roads and highway overpasses. In the UK, the skill of making timber formwork for poured, or in situ, concrete, is referred to as shuttering.
Use of terms in the United States
Carpentry in the United States is historically defined similarly to the United Kingdom as the “heavier and stronger work distinguished from a joiner “…who does lighter and more ornamental work than that of a carpenter…” although the “…work of a carpenter and joiner are often combined. Joiner is less common than the terms finish carpenter or cabinetmaker. The terms housewright and barnwright were used historically, now occasionally used by carpenters who work using traditional methods and materials. Someone who builds custom concrete formwork is a form carpenter.
Log church building in Russia reached spectacular heights such as this example from the 17th century
Wood is one of mankind’s oldest building materials. The ability to shape wood improved with technological advances from the stone age to the bronze age to the iron age. Some of the oldest archaeological evidence of carpentry are water well casings built using split oak timbers with mortise and tenon and notched corners excavated in eastern Germany dating from about 7,000 years ago in the early neolithic period.
Relatively little information about carpentry is available from pre-history (before written language) or even recent centuries because the knowledge and skills were passed down person to person, rarely in writing, until the printing press was invented in the 15th century and builders began regularly publishing guides and pattern books in the 18th and 19th centuries. The oldest surviving, complete architectural text is Vitruvius’ ten books collectively titled De architectura which discusses some carpentry.
Some of the oldest, surviving, wooden buildings in the world are the temples in China such as the Nanchan Temple built in the year 782, the Greensted Church parts of which are from the 11th century, the stave churchs in Norway from the 12th and 13th centuries.
By the 16th century sawmills were coming into use in Europe. The founding of America was partly based on a desire to extract resources from the new continent including wood for use in ships and buildings in Europe. In the 18th century part of the Industrial Revolution was the invention of the steam engine and cut nails. These technologies combined with the invention of the circular saw led to the development of balloon framing which was the beginning of the decline of traditional timber framing. The 19th century saw the development of electrical engineering and distribution which allowed the development of hand-held power tools, wire nails and machines to mass-produce screws. In the 20th century portland cement came into common use and concrete foundations allowed carpenters to do away with heavy timber sills. Also, drywall came into common use replacing lime plaster on wooden lath. Plywood, engineered lumber and chemically treated lumber also came into use.
For types of carpentry used in America see American historic carpentry.
Carpentry requires training which involves both acquiring knowledge and physical practice. In formal training a carpenter begins as an apprentice, then becomes a journeyman, and with enough experience and competency can eventually attain the status of a master carpenter. Today pre-apprenticeship training may be gained through non-union vocational programs such as high school shop classes and community colleges.
Informally a laborer may simply work alongside carpenters for years learning skills by observation and peripheral assistance. While such an individual may obtain journeyman status by paying the union entry fee and obtaining a journeyman’s card (which provides the right to work on a union carpentry crew) the carpenter foreman will, by necessity, dismiss any worker who presents the card but does not demonstrate the expected skill level.
Carpenters may work for an employer or be self-employed. No matter what kind of training a carpenter has had, some U. S. states require contractors to be licensed which requires passing a written test and having minimum levels of insurance.
Carpentry schools and programs
Formal training in the carpentry trade is available in seminars, certificate programs, high school programs, online classes, associate degree programs, and advanced college degrees in the new construction, restoration, and preservation carpentry fields. Sometimes these programs are called pre-apprenticeship training.
In the modern British construction industry, carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where general certificate of secondary educations (GCSE) in Mathematics, English, and Technology help but are not essential. However, this is deemed the preferred route, as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification.
There are two main divisions of training: construction-carpentry and cabinetmaking. During pre-apprenticeship, trainees in each of these divisions spend 30 hours a week for 12 weeks in classrooms and indoor workshops learning mathematics, trade terminology, and skill in the use of hand and power tools. Construction-carpentry trainees also participate in calisthenics to prepare for the physical aspect of the work.
Upon completion of pre-apprenticeship, trainees who have successfully passed the graded curriculum (taught by highly experienced journeyman carpenters) are assigned to a local union and to union carpentry crews at work on construction sites or in cabinet shops as First Year Apprentices. Over the next four years, as they progress in status to Second Year, Third Year, and Fourth Year Apprentice, apprentices periodically return to the training facility every three months for a week of more detailed training in specific aspects of the trade.
Apprenticeships and Journeymen carpenters
Tradesmen in countries such as Germany and Australia are required to fulfill a formal apprenticeship (usually three to four years) to work as a professional carpenter. Upon graduation from the apprenticeship, he or she is known as a journeyman carpenter.
Up through the 19th and even the early 20th century, the journeyman traveled to another region of the country to learn the building styles and techniques of that area before (usually) returning home. In modern times, journeymen are not required to travel, and the term now refers to a level of proficiency and skill. Union carpenters in the United States, that is, members of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, are required to pass a skills test to be granted official journeyman status, but uncertified professional carpenters may also be known as journeymen based on their skill level, years of experience, or simply because they support themselves in the trade and not due to any certification or formal woodworking education.
Professional status as a journeyman carpenter in the United States may be obtained in a number of ways. Formal training is acquired in a four-year apprenticeship program administered by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, in which journeyman status is obtained after successful completion of twelve weeks of pre-apprenticeship training, followed by four years of on-the-job field training working alongside journeyman carpenters. The Timber Framers Guild also has a formal apprenticeship program for traditional timber framing. Training is also available in groups like the Kim Bồng woodworking village in Vietnam where apprentices live and work to learn woodworking and carpentry skills.
In Canada, each province sets its own standards for apprenticeship. The average length of time is four years and includes a minimum number of hours of both on-the-job training and technical instruction at a college or other institution. Depending on the number of hours of instruction an apprentice receives, he or she can earn a Certificate of Proficiency, making him or her a journeyman, or a Certificate of Qualification, which allows him or her to practice a more limited amount of carpentry. Canadian carpenters also have the option of acquiring an additional Interprovincial Red Seal that allows them to practice anywhere in Canada. The Red Seal requires the completion of an apprenticeship and an additional examination.
After working as a journeyman for a while, a carpenter may go on to study or test as a master carpenter. In some countries, such as Germany and Japan, this is an arduous and expensive process, requiring extensive knowledge (including economic and legal knowledge) and skill to achieve master certification; these countries generally require master status for anyone employing and teaching apprentices in the craft. In others, ‘master carpenter’ can be a loosely used term to describe any skilled carpenter.
Fully trained carpenters and joiners will often move into related trades such as shop fitting, scaffolding, bench joinery, maintenance and system installation.
Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood which has been prepared by splitting (riving), hewing, or sawing with a pit saw or sawmill called lumber (American English) or timber (British English). Today natural and engineered lumber and many other building materials carpenters may use are typically prepared by others and delivered to the job site. In 2013 the carpenters union in America used the term carpenter for a catch-all position. Tasks performed by union carpenters include installing “…flooring, windows, doors, interior trim, cabinetry, solid surface, roofing, framing, siding, flooring, insulation, …acoustical ceilings, computer-access flooring, metal framing, wall partitions, office furniture systems, and both custom or factory-produced materials, …trim and molding,… ceiling treatments, … exposed columns and beams, displays, mantels, staircases…metal studs, metal lath, and drywall…”
Health and safety
Carpentry is often hazardous work. Types of woodworking and carpentry hazards include Machine hazards, flying materials, tool projection, fire and explosion, electrocution, noise, vibration, dust and chemicals. In the United States the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) tries to prevent illness, injury and fire through regulations. However, self-employed workers are not covered by the OSHA act. OSHA claims that “Since 1970, workplace fatalities have been reduced by more than 65 percent and occupational injury and illness rates have declined by 67 percent. At the same time, U.S. employment has almost doubled.” The leading cause of overall fatalities, called the “fatal four”, are falls, followed by struck by object, electrocution, and caught-in/between. In general construction “employers must provide working conditions that are free of known dangers. Keep floors in work areas in a clean and, so far as possible, a dry condition. Select and provide required personal protective equipment at no cost to workers. Train workers about job hazards in a language that they can understand. Examples of how to prevent falls includes placing railings and toe-boards at any floor opening which cannot be well covered and elevated platforms and safety harness and lines, safety nets, stair railings and hand rails.
Safety is not just about the workers on the job site. Carpenters work needs to meet the requirements in the Life Safety Code such as in stair building and building codes to promote long term quality and safety for the building occupants.
Types and occupations
A finish carpenter (North America), also called a joiner (a traditional name now rare in North America), is one who does finish carpentry, that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. Some large-scale construction may be of an exactitude and artistry that it is classed as finish carpentry.
A carpenter and joiner is one who has a much broader skill ranging from joinery, finishing carpentry, building construction and form work.
A trim carpenter specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window casings, mantels, baseboards, and other types of ornamental work. Cabinet installers may also be referred to as trim carpenters.
A cabinetmaker is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage.
A ship’s carpenter specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, repair techniques and carpentry specific to nautical needs in addition to many other on-board tasks; usually the term refers to a carpenter who has a post on a specific ship. Steel warships as well as wooden ones need ship’s carpenters, especially for making emergency repairs in the case of battle or storm damage.
A shipwright builds wooden ships on land.
A cooper is someone who makes barrels: wooden staved vessels of a conical form, of greater length than breadth.
A scenic carpenter builds and dismantles temporary scenery and sets in film-making, television, and the theater.
A framer is a carpenter who builds the skeletal structure or wooden framework of buildings, most often in the platform framing method. Historically, balloon framing was used until the 1950s when fire safety concerns made platform framing inherently better. A carpenter who specializes in building with timbers rather than studs is known as a timber framer and does traditional timber framing with wooden joints, including mortise-and-tenon joinery, post and beam work with metal connectors, or pole building framing.
A luthier is someone who makes or repairs stringed instruments. The word luthier comes from the French word for lute, “luth”.
A log builder builds structures of stacked, horizontal logs including houses, barns, churches, fortifications, and more.
A formwork carpenter creates the shuttering and falsework used in concrete construction.
In Japanese carpentry, daiku is the simple term for carpenter, a miya-daiku (temple carpenter) performs the work of both architect and builder of shrines and temples, and a sukiya-daiku works on teahouse construction and houses. Sashimono -shi build furniture and tateguya do interior finishing work.
A restoration carpenter is a carpenter who works in historic building restoration, someone who restores a structure to a former state.
A conservation carpenter works in architectural conservation, known in the U.S. as a “preservation carpenter” who works in historic preservation, someone who keeps structures from changing.
Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and sustainable sources of building materials for use in construction projects. They also practice building methods that require using less material and material that has the same structural soundness.
Habib the Carpenter
Jean-Baptiste Bédard (carpenter)
James C. Carpenter
John Day (carpenter)First submarine casualty in his own “diving chamber”
Jacob W. Holt, mid 19th century North Carolina
Thomas Holt (architect)
Sympson the Joiner
Alexander Delos “Boss” Jones
Peter J. McGuire
Thomas Moore (Australian)
Lord Nelson Roney, designed and built many of Oregon’s early covered bridges
Norm “New Yankee” Abram
Theo Wade Brown
Thomas J. MacDonald
Atlanta Community ToolBank
Worshipful Company of Carpenters
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“United Brotherhood Of Carpenters”. carpenters.org. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
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“Safety and Health Topics – Fall Protection”. osha.gov. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
Lee Butler, “Patronage and the Building Arts in Tokugawa Japan”, Early Modern Japan. Fall-Winter 2004
“Environmentally Friendly Building Materials”. McMullen Carpenters And Joiners. 2009-04-10. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
“A Green Home Begins with ENERGY STAR Blue” (PDF). Energystar. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
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“Defining Green-Collar Jobs” (PDF). There is no consensus on how to define green-collar jobs. A very broad interpretation of green jobs would include all existing and new jobs that contribute to environmental quality through improved efficiencies, better resource management, and other technologies that successfully address the environmental challenges facing society. Probably the most concise, general definition is “well-paid, career track jobs that contribute directly to preserving or enhancing environmental quality” (Apollo Alliance 2008, 3). This definition suggests that green-collar jobs directly contribute to improving environmental quality, but would not include low-wage jobs that provide little mobility. Most discussion of green-collar jobs does not refer to positions that require a college degree, but they typically do involve training beyond high school. Many of the positions are similar to skilled, blue-collar jobs, such as electricians, welders,
link : wikipedia
( بهترین چوب درخت برای کابینت آشپزخانه شما )
When deciding on the material to use for your kitchen cabinets, real wood cut from trees is definitely the way to go. It is not only beautiful, but also extremely durable. It can be easily maintained by cleaning with a damp cloth, it can resist moisture much better then other alternatives, and it can withstand heavy usage for a very long period of time.
Pine wood is very soft and can dent easily. It is very likely to have knots giving it a rustic look. If the rest of your house has a rustic cabin feel, this wood is the way to go.
When picking the wood for your kitchen cabinets, there are many aspects to consider. If your kitchen is small, a lighter wood will brighten it up and make it seem larger. If you have a large kitchen already, it can withstand the deep darker woods and stains. Think about the theme of your household, whether it is more rustic or more modern and take that into consideration when picking a wood. Think about the color of granite you are using for your countertops and what color of wood would match best. Most importantly pick a wood that you will enjoy looking at day after day since it is your kitchen we’re talking about here.
Pine wood rustic cabin
The five most popular types of tree woods used for cabinets are oak, cherry, maple, hickory, and pine.
Oak cabinets are the most popular. They are the least expensive of wood types and are very abundant and easily found. Oak cabinets are extremely durable and are the easiest wood to stain and finish. The color varies from dark brown to light tan and the grain is more pronounced than in any other types making it an extremely beautiful option for any home.
Cherry wood is softer than oak and more versatile to work with. It is pretty durable, but is the most expensive of the five. It has a fine grain and the colors vary from rich red to reddish brown and will darken with age. It is a good wood choice when you want to give your kitchen a warm, luxurious feel and looks best in large open kitchens.
There are two types of maple wood that are commonly used for cabinets. Soft maple comes from silver maple and red maple trees. It is a softer wood like cherry but lighter in color. Dark maple comes from black maple or sugar maple trees. It is harder like oak but lighter in color. Maple wood can be stained in any shade while still maintaining its natural wood grain making it very versatile.
Hickory wood is the sturdiest wood in America. Its colors range from white shades to dark brown shades and it works very well with stains. Hickory trees are extremely abundant and have many different species making it easy to find Hickory trees to be cut down for cabinetry. It is extremely popular because of this attainability and its variety in color options.
Pine wood is very soft and can dent easily. It is very likely to have knots giving it a rustic look. If the rest of your house has a rustic cabin feel, this wood is the way to go. It is the least expensive of the five.
Be sure to take a look at all of your options before choosing a type of wood for your cabinets. There are so many varieties of colors and grains that you want to make certain you make the right decision for you and your home.
Pine wood rustic cabin
چوب کاج بسیار نرم است و به راحتی می توانید دندانه. این به احتمال بسیار زیاد به گره به آن شکل روستایی است. اگر بقیه خانه خود احساس کابین روستایی، این چوب به راه رفتن است.
هنگام چیدن چوب برای کابینت آشپزخانه خود را، جنبه های بسیاری در نظر گرفتن وجود دارد. اگر آشپزخانه شما کوچک است، چوب سبکتر خواهد آن را روشن و آن را به نظر می رسد بزرگتر. اگر شما از یک آشپزخانه بزرگ در حال حاضر، آن را می توانید در جنگل و لکه های تیره تر و عمیق را تحمل کند. مربوط به موضوع خانواده شما فکر می کنم، آن است که آیا روستایی بیشتر یا مدرن و را که در زمان انتخاب یک چوب. در مورد رنگ از گرانیت شما با استفاده از برای کانتر خود را و چه رنگ از چوب بهتر مطابقت فکر می کنم. مهمتر از چوب است که شما را از نگاه کردن به روز به روز از آن آشپزخانه خود را که ما در حال صحبت کردن در مورد اینجا این است را انتخاب کنید.
پنج نوع محبوب ترین ها از چوب درخت مورد استفاده برای کابینت ها بلوط، گیلاس، افرا، درخت گردوی امریکایی، و کاج.
کابینت بلوط محبوب ترین. آنها کمترین هزینه از انواع چوب هستند و بسیار فراوان و به راحتی یافت می شود. کابینت بلوط بسیار با دوام هستند و ساده ترین چوب به لکه و پایان. رنگ از قهوه ای تیره به نور متفاوت است و قهوهای مایل به زرد دانه قطعی تر از هر نوع دیگر و آن را یک گزینه بسیار زیبا برای هر خانه است.
چوب گیلاس نرم تر از بلوط و همه کاره برای کار با است. این بسیار با دوام است، اما گران ترین از پنج. از آن است که دانه ریز و رنگ از قرمز غنی متفاوت مایل به قرمز قهوه ای و با سن تیره خواهد شد. این یک انتخاب خوب چوب زمانی که شما می خواهید را به آشپزخانه خود را گرم و احساس لوکس و به نظر می رسد بهترین در آشپزخانه های بزرگ باز است.
دو نوع از چوب افرا است که معمولا برای کابینت استفاده می شود. افرا نرم می آید از درخت افرا و درخت افرای قرمز. این یک چوب نرمتر مانند گیلاس، اما سبک تر در رنگ است. افرا تیره می آید از افرا و یا افرای قندی درختان سیاه و سفید. آن را سخت تر مانند بلوط، اما سبک تر در رنگ است. چوب افرا را می توان در هر رنگ رنگ آمیزی در حالی که هنوز حفظ دانه چوب طبیعی خود را و آن را بسیار متنوع.
چوب درخت گردوی امریکایی sturdiest چوب در امریکا است. رنگ خود را از سایه های سفید به فام قهوه ای تیره و خوبی کار می کند با لکه ها. درختان درخت گردوی امریکایی بسیار فراوان و بسیاری از گونه های مختلف ساخت آن آسان برای پیدا کردن درختان درخت گردوی امریکایی به پایین برای کابینت را کاهش دهد. این بسیار محبوب است، زیرا از این حصول و تنوع آن در گزینه های رنگ.
چوب کاج بسیار نرم است و به راحتی می توانید دندانه. این به احتمال بسیار زیاد به گره به آن شکل روستایی است. اگر بقیه خانه خود احساس کابین روستایی، این چوب به راه رفتن است. این حداقل هزینه از پنج است.
لازم است تا نگاهی به همه گزینه های خود را قبل از انتخاب یک نوع چوب برای کابینت شما. بسیاری از انواع رنگ ها و دانه که می خواهید مطمئن شوید تصمیم درست برای شما و خانه شما وجود دارد.
Pine wood rustic cabin